blackberry scientific name

For example, Scientific Name: Rubus spp. Federal Noxious Weed List. Self-pollinating. Plant Protection Quarterly, 13(4):182-185; 8 ref. In eastern USA, their taxonomy is also unresolved and further complicated by horticultural introductions. Jennings DL, 1988. When established, R. fruticosus can grow in full shade in deep woodland, semi-shade in light woodland, or no shade situations, but in full shade fruit production is reduced and fruits will ripen later. Arapaho Thornless Blackberry Rubus spp. Shading and competition affect seedling survival negatively and most seedlings die in early establishment; Amor (1971) found that only 15% of seedlings at one study site survived the first year. Medicinally, blackberries also have a long history, having been used by Europeans for such purposes for at least 2,000 years (Anderberg). Fragaria grandiflora Ehrh. 163-174. Cultivars include 'Black Satin', 'Chester Thornless', 'Dirksen Thornless', 'Hull Thornless', 'Loch Ness', 'Loch Tay', 'Merton Thornless', 'Smoothstem', and 'Triple Crown'. Thompson, A. K., 2010. Plant Protection Quarterly, 13(4):160-162; 8 ref. Groves RH, Williams J, Roush RT, 1998. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Apomictic (reproduce by seeds formed without sexual fusion). USDA-NRCS, 2002. blackberry; Other Scientific Names. Department of the Environment, Research Report No. non P.J. Can be planted farther south. Pretoria, South Africa: Briza Publications. 'Olallie', in turn, is a cross between loganberry and youngberry. NASS, 2016. For a full list of species included refer to Tutin et al. Seed requires stratification and germinates in spring. Blackberry Computers Phone … The genus Rubus also includes raspberries, although in raspberries and other species of the subgenus Idaeobatus, the drupelets separate from the core when picked, leaving a hollow fruit, whereas in blackberries the drupelets stay attached to the core. Those which succeed in establishing can grow up to four canes, with a length of up to 1 m, producing daughter plants in their first autumn. Crookneck Squash. Sweet, spicy edible fruits, attractive fall color and a valuable food source for wildlife. Amor RL, 1974. Blackberry leaves are also a food for certain Lepidoptera caterpillars. http://image.fs.uidaho.edu/vide/descr100.htm. Trees and Shrubs: Hardy in Great Britain. 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. Biology of Australian Weeds. Physiology and Phenology is native to the Pacific Northwest, and has been useful in producing commercial cultivars grown in that region. The blackberries, as well as various other Rubus species with mounding or rambling growth habits, are often called brambles. These canes actively grow and form leaves during the first year, and develop fruits in the form of drupes during the second year, afterwhich they die down. Vol. Clusters of pinkish-white, 5-petaled, rose-like flowers in spring give way to firm blackberries of excellent eating quality that mature in summer (mid- … Sheep may graze blackberry seedlings if there is no other palatable feed around. Rubus armeniacus, the Himalayan blackberry or Armenian blackberry, is a species of Rubus in the blackberry group Rubus subgenus Rubus series Discolores Focke. In: Panetta FD, Groves RH, Shepherd RCH. Edees and Newton (1988) published a taxonomic account of Rubus in Britain listing 307 species. 13th Australian Weeds Conference: weeds "threats now and forever? Reproduction. Reference: FT/EFSA/BIOHAZ/2012/01 Lot 1 (Food of plant origin with high water content such as fruits, vegetables, juices and herbs). Blackberry is a restricted invasive plant under the Biosecurity Act 2014. Bruzzese E, 1998. R. fruticosus L. agg. Art, Music, Literature, Sports and leisure. Most species are hermaphrodites, Rubus chamaemorus being an exception. of ref. Pyzner, J., 2006. http://www.lsuagcenter.com/NR/rdonlyres/5dd47469-da9f-4398-ad57-85fdb3e9327e/27320/pub1553blackberriesfinal.pdf Growing blackberries for pleasure and profit. Floraweb, 2003. Rubus allegheniensis. Problem plants of South Africa: a guide to the identification and control of more than 300 invasive plants and other weeds. Berries stay whiter than other similar varieties as berries ripen, and with much better flavor. In 1842 blackberry was first recorded as being deliberately introduced from Europe into Adelaide, South Australia for its fruit. The blackberry flowers provide a nectar source for bees, while the bees carry out pollination, allowing the plants to produce fruit. These canes actively grow and form leaves during the first year, and develop fruits in the form of drupes during the second year, afterwhich they die down. In raspberries, these types are called primocane fruiting, fall fruiting, or everbearing and have been around for some time. The shrubs can grow in poor soil so locations like woodlands, hedges and hillsides make the perfect habitats. Blackberry is aplant that can be found inRed Dead Redemption 2. It lives in many different types of sites. In the case of the less frequent sexual production, the offspring will be slightly different from the parent plant and will then usually reproduce as a new species by means of apomixis. The plant can reproduce by seed and from roots as well as by daughter plants when the end of a stem reaches the soil. Host specificity of the rust Phragmidium violaceum, a potential biological control agent of European blackberry. From Greek doctors to American Indians, the blackberry plants were used medicinally for such purposes as to stop diarrhea or for mouth ailments (Anderberg). Some consider the dewberries simply a variety of blackberry. Plant Protection Quarterly, 13(4):157-159; 5 ref. Numerous cultivars have been selected for commercial and amateur cultivation. Arapaho needs only 400-500 chill hours (hours with temperatures below 45*F). Common Name(s): Blackberry Scientific Name: Rubus Spp. Roy B, Popay I, Champion P, James T, Rahman A, 1998. In the northern hemisphere, R. fruticosus flowers approximately from May to August, in the southern hemisphere from November to April. Trailing blackberries are vigorous, crown forming, require a trellis for support, and are less cold hardy than the erect or semi-erect blackberries. Genetically modified crops and their wild relatives - A UK perspective. Selectivity and functional diversity in arbuscular mycorrhizas of co-occurring fungi and plants from a temperate deciduous woodland. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2003. They are also responsible for developing the primocane fruiting blackberries. In addition, there is a wide variety of blackberry products available through online retailers. The effect of Phragmidium violaceum (Shultz) Winter (Uredinales) on Rubus fruticosus L. agg. Saved by VİLDAN-ATTİLA GÖKÇEN'S CALCULATORS & COMPUTERS MUSEUM. It may grow up to 13 feet and stems can be about 30 feet long. Williams and Timmins (1990) listed blackberry as a significant problem weed of protected natural areas, which can permanently alter the structure, successional processes, and composition of organisms present in native communities. Welcome to Gurney's! Raspberries and blackberries: their breeding, diseases and growth. Associations Rubus L. – blackberry. National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28 [slightly revised May, 2016], https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/ [accessed December, 2016]. All Tropical. Rubus spp. The scientific name of Blackberryis the botanical name or formal name. It grows up to 2 m or more tall and is extremely variable in leaf shape and plant form. Scientific name: Rubus spp. In combination with the ability of Rubus to spread vegetatively over large areas, this has the consequence that the slightest variation tends to persist and to become recognised as a species, complicating the taxonomy. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5. The juice is often fermented to make wines or liqueurs (Janick and Paull, 2008). The PLANTS Database. 2.2 Blackberry (Scientific name: Rubus ulmifolius, family Rosaceae) Known as blackberry or mulberry It has the following properties: Contains natural antioxidants. Berkeley, USA: University of California Press. The blackberries' special combination of taste, form, color, and texture provides a unique experience for humans in the joy they receive from nature. Kraft T, Nybom H, 1995. The fruit of blackberries and raspberries comes from a single flower whose pistil is made up of a number of free carpels. Field RP, Bruzzese E, 1984. Taxonomy and genotypes of the Rubus fruticosus L. aggregate in Australia. Texas Redbud. In New Zealand, the initial spread of blackberry was intentional by planting for use as a food source and to form hedges, with unintentional distribution via humans, sheep and particularly by introduced birds, and by horticultural escape (Healy, 1952; Guthrie-Smith, 1953). However, as common names, the terms raspberry and blackberry are used imprecisely. Blackberries are native perennials that are sometimes referred to as dewberry. 2001. http://www.envbop.govt.nz/weeds/weed26.asp. The genus Rubus is distributed in all continents except in Antarctica, with a northern limit of 65-75°N (approximating to the Arctic Circle) including areas with extreme aridity (Weber, 1995). Stems are variable, semi-erect canes, which grow up to 8 or 10 m long. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Plant Viruses Online: Descriptions and Lists from the VIDE Database. Williams PA, Timmins SM, 1990. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press, 692 pp. VicEmergency Hotline: 1800 226 226 Towards the integrated management of blackberry: workshop summary and recommendations. The report will display the kingdom and all descendants leading down to the name you choose. The European dewberry, Rubus caesius, grows more upright like other brambles and its fruits are coated with a thin layer or 'dew' of waxy droplets. For more information on noxious weed regulations and definitions, see Noxious weed lists and laws.Although control of Himalayan blackberry is not required, it is recommended in protected wilderness areas and in natural lands that are being restore… Bruzzese (1980) states that though more than 40 phytophagous species occur on R. fruticosus, it appears that they have only little effect in suppressing populations of this species. Compendium record. fruticosus is generally a temperate species preferring a range of soil conditions and rainfall regimes. Credit is due under the terms of this license that can reference both the New World Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation. by Groves R H, Williams J, Corey S]. Systematics of the Rubus fruticosus aggregate (Rosaceae) and other exotic Rubus taxa in Australia. Plant Protection Quarterly, 13(4):152-156; 32 ref. A few names on this list will fascinate those interested in the derivation of plant names: Achillea millefolium, Adonis amurensis, and Bougainvillea. Common Blackberry Rubus allegheniensis Rose family (Rosaceae) Description: This woody shrub forms canes that are initially erect, but often bend downward to re-root in the ground. Telephone: 136 186. The extensive use of herbicides to control blackberry is environmentally undesirable. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. VicEmergency Hotline: 1800 226 226 However, this name is not used for those like the raspberry that grow as upright canes, or for trailing or prostrate species such as most dewberries, or various low-growing boreal, arctic, or alpine species. Riverdale, USA. Due to this facultative apomixis, the seed is genetically identical to the parent plant. They are therefore often called microspecies. in south-eastern Victoria. It is often seen growing along roadsides and railroad tracks. The encyclopedia of fruit & nuts.. CABI, xviii + 954 pp.. 9780851996387. It also lacks prickly stems and has a simple leaf (no leaflets). Black raspberry necrosis virus. Kraft T, Nybom H, Werlemark G, 1996. Blackberry has already cost around $100 million to control and in lost production. 2004. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. Fruits are highly palatable with high vitamin C content and can be eaten raw, or made into drinks, jams, syrups or various preserves (Bown, 1997). Blackberry supplements are most commonly made from the fruit and leaves of the blackberry plant. USDA-APHIS, 2002. In: 13th Australian Weeds Conference: weeds "threats now and forever? http://www.floraweb.de. have been intentional as a fruit crop or a barrier hedge. http://image.fs.uidaho.edu/vide/descr668.htm. Impact of blackberry on an endangered plant species. Victoria Park, Australia: Plant Protection Society of Western Australia Inc. 418-421. Pratia. by Bañados, P. \Dale, A.]. schultesii (Opiz) Wessely ... Blackberry nightshade (Solanum nigrum) is regarded as an environmental weed in Victoria, Western Australia, New South Wales, Queensland and … Vegetables + Lamb's Lettuce. The blackberry tends to be red during its unripe ("green") phase, hence the old expression that "blackberries are red when they're green.". This in turn results in an increase in sedimentation within the watercourses and the spread of blackberry seeds downstream. Brazos was an old erect blackberry cultivar developed in Texas in 1959. Volume IV, Part 2A, Spermatophyta: Angiospermae: Dicotyledones 2(2). It is often seen growing along roadsides and railroad tracks. McGregor G, 1998. It will grow on a variety of disturbed and natural soil types. It requires moist soil but can tolerate some drought, or even in areas with extreme aridity (Weber, 1995). Plant Protection Quarterly, 13(4):196-198; 15 ref. Most of these invertebrates feed on different plant species, and those specific to Rubus have a wide host range within this genus. Flora Europaea. Smith, B. J., Miller-Butler, M., 2016. Over 300 species have been recognized in the UK (Clapham et al., 1952). Postharvest handling and storage of blackberries and raspberries, 10 5-7 pp. Most of these plants have woody stems with prickles like roses; spines, bristles, and gland-tipped hairs are also common in the genus. Blackberry plants, whose stems may be covered with thorns, also are called brambles. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. 264 pp. There are a greater number in continental Europe, although taxonomic studies are incomplete. The Plants Database includes the following 244 species of Rubus . Rubus is a genus of plant in the family Rosaceae, which is one of the largest families of flowering plants with about 3,400 species. New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article However, it is not advisable to use or eat blackberries growing close to busy roads due to the accumulated toxins from the traffic (FSA). http://www.aphis.usda.gov/ppq/permits/fnwsbycat-e.PDF. Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burge NA, Moore DM, Valnete DH, Walter SM, Webb DA, 1968. In New Zealand, it is on a list of 110 species of National Surveillance Plant Pests, prohibited from propagation, sale, distribution, and commercial display throughout the country (Pennycook, 1998). Acta Horticulturae, 777 [ed. The Blackberry plant is edible, and also used as an herbal remedy. Plant Protection Quarterly, 13(4):179. Prime-Jim and Prime-Jan were released in 2004 and are the first cultivars of primocane fruiting blackberry. The subgenus Rubus (or Eubatus) also includes the dewberries, whose fruit is also purple or black, but whose stems trail along the ground, rather than more upright and arching as generally with the blackberries. The main purpose of having a scientific name is to have a same name accepted and used worldwide. Roots are stout, branched, creeping underground, growing vertically to a maximum depth of 1.5 m depending on soil type, from a woody crown up to 20 cm in diameter. A vigorous, trailing-type grower with good disease-resistance. Description Trailing pacific blackberry, also called California blackberry, or Pacific dewberry, is an invasive vine that grows throughout the Northwest from the Cascades to the Pacific Ocean. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. Ten species of blackberry are listed for Texas. The canes may be green, purplish, or red and have generally backward pointing thorns, and are moderately hairy, round or angled, sometimes bearing small, stalked glands. Huxley AJ, Griffiths M, Levy M, 1992. R. ursinus Cham. The blackberry management handbook. Gallery: Common names: Evergreen blackberry, cutleaf blackberry Scientific Name: Rubus laciniatus Description: Evergreen blackberry is an upright to rambling evergreen, perennial, woody shrub with stout stems that possess stiff, sharp, recurved prickles. Keith Turnbull Research Institute. Antunes, L. E. C., and M. C. B. Raseira. Flora Europaea Database. Pennycook SR, 1998. Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L. The Blackberry Plants for the Largest Berries Winterberry Varieties The scientific name of those blueberries in the produce case might not be important to you if you're making pancakes. Blackberry in New Zealand. Apomixis (also called apogamy) is asexual reproduction, without fertilization. Temperate and subtropical fruit production [ed. These are crown forming, very vigorous, and need a trellis for support. Himalayan blackberry can be found in a variety of areas. In its first year, a new stem grows vigorously to its full length of 3-6 meters, arching or trailing along the ground and bearing large palmately compound leaves with five or seven leaflets; it does not produce any flowers. Scientific Name: Rubus spp. 3rd edition.. Blackwell, Berlin, Germany. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. Rosaceae to Umbelliferae , xxvii + 455 pp.. In addition, blackberry flowers are good nectar producers, and large areas of wild blackberries will yield a medium to dark, fruity honey. Problem Plants of South Africa. Fragaria magna ; Fragaria vesca var. In: Nelson's Checker-mallow( Sidalcea nelsoniana). http://image.fs.uidaho.edu/vide/descr668.htm. Herbicides are the most reliable blackberry control method. It will grow in open weedy sites and is also common in woodlands. Rubus fruticosus L. Preferred Common Name. Melbourne, Australia: Inkarta Press. Generally, introduction and spread of R. fruticosus L. agg. More information. The report will display the kingdom and all descendants leading down to the name you choose. Preferred Scientific Name. vi + 282 pp. Biological control of blackberry: progress towards finding additional strains of the rust fungus, Phragmidium violaceum. (Anon., 2001). in Central Tablelands of New South Wales. Blackberries are shrubs having woody stems, thorns and fitted angular, in tender youth.As they grow, by their own weight, they bend towards the ground. 'Illini Hardy', a semi-erect thorny cultivar introduced by the University of Illinois, is cane hardy in zone 5, where traditionally blackberry production has been problematic, since canes often failed to survive the winter. Clapham AR, Tutin TG, Warburg EF, eds, 1952. schultesii (Opiz) Wessely Solanum opacum A. Braun & Bouché (misapplied) Solanum schultesiiOpiz In the processing market, the fruit are typically frozen whole, puréed or juiced and from these basic ‘industrial’ products, hundreds of products are made for sale to consumers in every section of a grocery store. Specialty. Yellow Wild Indigo. By comparison, cutleaf blackberry has five very deeply lobed leaflets and California blackberry has only three leaflets. The University of Arkansas has developed cultivars of erect blackberries. It is capable of growing on infertile barren soils. According to EPPO (2003), R. fruticosus is a minor host of the following quarantine pests: Anthonomus signatus, Apple mosaic virus, Arabis mosaic virus, Black raspberry latent virus, Cherry leafroll virus, Melacosoma americanum, Naupactus leucoloma, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus, Strawberry latent ringspot virus, Thrips imaginis, Tomato black ring virus, Tomato ringspot virus; and an incidental host for: Tobacco ringspot virus, Anthonomus bisignifer, Cacoecimorpha pronubana, and Raspberry ringspot virus. USDA-ARS, 2016. Later flowering than raspberries, flowers are not usually damaged by frost although young shoots are frost sensitive. R. fruticosus can degrade the natural environment by altering habitats as a result of crowding out and suppressing the growth of native vegetation. The first two come from figures out of Greek mythology. 2. Rubus fruticosa ; International Common Names. Noxious weeds of Australia. Richardson RG, Melbourne, FJ, eds.             Subphylum: Angiospermae,                 Class: Dicotyledonae,                     Order: Rosales,                         Family: Rosaceae,                             Genus: Rubus,                                 Species: Rubus fruticosus, Highly adaptable to different environments, Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc, Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year, Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately. As apomictic plants are genetically identical from one generation to the next, each has the characters of a true species, maintaining distinctions from other congeneric apomicts, while having much smaller differences than is normal between species of most genera. Gustav Hegi, Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2001. It is native to Armenia and Northern Iran, and widely naturalised elsewhere. Origin: native. More information. Helgason T, Merryweather JW, Denison J, Wilson P, Young JPW, Fitter AH, 2002. Plant Viruses Online: Descriptions and Lists from the VIDE Database. Herbicide responses of blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L. Amor RL, Richardson RG, Pritchard GH, Bruzzese E, 1998. Rubus fruticosus L. agg. Family Rosaceae – Rose family Genus Rubus L. – blackberry P Enter a scientific or common name at any rank. To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats.The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here: The history of this article since it was imported to New World Encyclopedia: Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed. Plant Protection Quarterly, 13(4):180-181; 7 ref. 8th edition. Towards improved biocontrol of blackberries, Proceedings of the 12th Australian Weeds Conference, Hobart, Tasmania, 325-329. Some of the other cultivars from this program are 'Waldo', 'Siskiyou', 'Black Butte', 'Kotata Berry', 'Pacific', and 'Cascade'. Common names: bramble, blackberry, European blackberry, black heg, wild blackberry. It will grow in open weedy sites and is also common in woodlands. These fruits develop from a single carpel, and mostly from flowers with superior ovaries. Many publications also use the common name Himalayan blackberry when referring to both R. discolor and R. armeniacus. Rubus, Rosaceae). New Edibles. Scientific name: Rubus fruticosus. Perennial Flowers + Moneyplant. Blackberries are perennial plants that typically bear biennial stems ("canes") from the perennial root system. agg.) The newly developed primocane fruiting blackberries flower and fruit on the new growth. Home. thorny dewberry. Evans KJ, Symon DE, Roush RT, 1998. Recommended cultivars in the United Kingdom include 'Ashton Cross' (vigorous, thorny), 'Bedford Giant' (heavy cropping, vigorous, thorny), 'Black Satin' (vigorous, thornless), 'Dirksen' (thornless, very hardy), 'Thornless Evergreen' (heavy crops of high quality fruit; thornless), 'Fantasia' (very large fruit; vigorous), 'Hull Thornless' (heavy cropping), 'Loch Ness' (thornless, semi-erect canes), 'Marion' (vigorous, thorny; good flavor), 'Smoothstem' (thornless), and 'Thornfree' (moderate vigour, thornless) (Huxley 1992). Fragaria ananassa Duchesne; Preferred Common Name. eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'newworldencyclopedia_org-box-4','ezslot_3',170,'0','0'])); In the blackberry, the drupelets are attached to an elongated core that is removed with the fruit. ", Sheraton Perth Hotel, Perth, Western Australia, 8-13 September 2002: papers and proceedings, 418-421; 12 ref. In its second year, the stem does not grow longer, but the flower buds break to produce flowering laterals, which bear smaller leaves with three or five leaflets. Common blackberry is an erect shrub, the branches occasionally to 8 feet and arching high or being supported by surrounding trees or shrubs. Blackberries will not tolerate waterlogged soils, drought or excessive periods of low humidity (Jackson et al., 2011). Scientific Name. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm, Evans KJ, Symon DE, Whalen MA, Hosking JR, Barker RM, Oliver JA, 2007. http://image.fs.uidaho.edu/vide/descr100.htm. Scientific name: Randia formosa Synonyms: Mussaenda formosa, Randia mussaenda Family: Rubiaceae Common name: Blackberry Jam Fruit, Raspberry Bush, Jasmin de Rosa Origin: Central and South America You don't have to make a preserve with this fruit - the fresh pulp tastes exactly like Blackberry Jam. CABI is a registered EU trademark. Since the many species form hybrids easily, there are many cultivars with more than one species in their ancestry. Strik BC, Finn CE, Clark JR, Bañados MP, 2008. Controlled atmosphere storage of fruits and vegetables.. (Ed.2) CABI, xvi + 272 pp.. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20103257949 9781845936464. doi: 10.1079/9781845936464.0000. It grows upright on open ground and will climb over and trail over other vegetation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Each flower is about 2-3 centimeters in diameter with five white or pale pink petals. Dersal, van WR, 1938. Of the four weedy wild blackberries, thimbleberry is the only nonvining species. A study of the ecology and control of blackberry (Rubusfruticosus L. ex Genev Naturalised Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Dicotyledons. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 327 pp. Blackberries are native perennials that are sometimes referred to as dewberry. Database of European Plants (ESFEDS)., Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Graden. This can be a symptom of exhausted reserves in the plant's roots, marginal pollinator populations, or infection with a virus such as raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV). The scientific name of Thornless Blackberry is the botanical name or formal name. Wild blackberry is a medium-sized shrub growing throughout roadsides, open fields and wood edges. Plant Protection Quarterly, 13(4):163-174; 4 pp. Rubus). In order to produce these blackberries in these areas of Mexico where there is no winter chilling to stimulate flower bud development, chemical defoliation and application of growth regulators are used to bring the plants into bloom. The drupelets only develop around ovules that are fertilized by the male gamete from a pollen grain. For commercial production of blackberries, winter chilling is required and the crop will withstand -20°C when dormant. 2012, Speyeria zerene hippolyta (Oregon silverspot butterfly), US Fish and Wildlife Service, The blackberries are a widespread and well known group of several-hundred species, a number of which are closely related apomictic microspecies, native throughout the temperate Northern Hemisphere (Huxley 1992). R. fruticosus can threaten populations of certain native plant species that are already rare or endangered (Briggs, 1998; Davies 1998). Science Research Series 14, Wellington, New Zealand: Department of Conservation. Micropropagation of blackberry genotypes., 1133 487-490. http://www.actahort.org/books/1133/1133_75.htm.

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