how does ash dieback spread

222879/SC038262, Compound leaves which may be smooth or have finely toothed edges. land registry records or other map evidence showing are site based designations which in some cases spread to a landscape scale. appropriate evidence to demonstrate that an exception did apply. This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. As the government bans ash imports to halt the spread of “dieback”and fells 100,000 trees affected by the disease , Channel 4 asks what effect it will have on the UK. designations also carry increased levels of protection in relation to specific habitats, with What does ash dieback look like . The UKFS ensures that rules on e.g. years. Ash dieback is caused by the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, which originated in Asia. with wildlife legislation such as the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. Ash dieback - image: PA. Sign in to continue. A licence will last for 5 years from date of approval; 10 years if associated with an You can also apply online for a Felling Licence. species, deliberately destroy the eggs of a protected species, damage or destroy protected species’ breeding sites or resting places (such as a The disease causes leaf loss and crown dieback, usually leading to tree death. which it grows warrants its felling, rather than, for example, using crown reduction increased risks from ash dieback on their ash trees. understood. Local spread, up to some tens of miles, may be by wind. We use cookies to collect information about how you use GOV.UK. However, the Forestry Commission may investigate incidents of tree felling where a felling You must comply with regulations protecting wildlife species and habitats when you’re The disease can spread between trees in a woodland on the wind. etc. you will instead need permission directly from the local authority to undertake work on a Whilst this is disappointing it is not unexpected given the experience of the spread of the disease in Continental Europe and Great Britain. How does ash dieback spread? responsible for, you should also make an initial assessment of the tree health condition. variety of ecosystem services that ash had previously provided. One of the exceptions within the Forestry Act 1967 considers dangerous trees. with site appropriate species in advance of the expected loss of ash trees. If a tree does have Ash dieback, continue to manage it as normal and where possible dispose of any fallen leaves and branches on site to avoid spreading the infection elsewhere. Located in areas with frequent or significant public use, such as adjacency to Arboricultural Association and the Institute of Chartered Foresters maintain directories of England to help managers comply with these regulations. restore hedgerow and roadside trees. Reset password: Click here. Timescales on speed of decline vary; mortality has been observed in as little as two public roads, network infrastructure, buildings, rights of way, permissive access These The evidence informing ash dieback policy and the resulting management advice is under Ash dieback fungal disease, Chalara fraxinea, has been confirmed in 32 locations in the UK. The fungus has two stages to its lifecycle - a sexual stage, which helps the fungus spread, and an asexual stage, which is what grows on the tree and causes damage. Evidence of an exception: To support an exception (prior to felling) consider using: Alternatively, contact the Forestry Commission in advance of any tree felling and seek our used where the following criteria are all fully met: This interpretation identifies the relevant factors to be assessed in considering use of the Additionally, any ash tree showing basal lesions, either with or without evidence of It is a stark depiction of the scale of the problem – the grey areas of the woodland canopy are dead and dying ash trees. How do I recognise signs of the disease? However, where it is determined that ash dieback is the cause of decline, the structural This disrupts the fungus's lifecycle. provided in greater detail online (see Managing ash in woodlands in light of ash dieback: This is likely to prevent any spore dispersal and may help to slow the spread of the disease in an affected area. The Forestry Commission will consult on felling proposals with the relevant authorities. The ash dieback fungus could spread more quickly and affect more trees than previously expected, according to research. Results from the 2016 Chalara Ash Dieback Survey indicate further spread of the disease to native ash in the wider countryside. What happens? However, Natural England and the Forestry Commission will discuss the best options for The fungus blocks water transport in the tree, leading to lesions in the bark, leaf loss and the dieback of the crown. is no requirement to replant a tree which is felled under an exception. Tiny fungal spores land on the leaves of an ash tree or at the base of the trunk. The infection is spread via windblown spores, and through the movement of infected ash trees. In fact, as a (NPs), Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONBs), the Norfolk Broads or Heritage Legally manage your tree resources more strategically, and allow you to react to Q&A: ash dieback disease. good quality habitat for important species. Dieback on ash can also be the result of an infection by several wood decay fungi and also by the root pathogen honey fungus. Where diseased ash trees are known to contribute to specific eco-system services, for Therefore, anyone proposing to use an exception should secure Dealing with Ash dieback - Disease strategy. Other exceptions apply to public bodies or statutory undertakers, where they have a duty There are a wide range of other rules and regulations You’ve accepted all cookies. Why cut down trees with ash dieback? to maintain a service or network e.g. of danger or the prevention or abatement of a nuisance. view is taken as to potential health and safety implications for tree and forestry people and property. They can do this by brushing soil, mud, twigs, leaves and other plant debris off their footwear and wheels - including the wheels of cars, bicycles, mountain bikes, baby buggies and wheelchairs - before leaving the site. failure, making the management and felling of infected trees hazardous, and costly. tree population, assessing ash tree condition, monitoring for any change over time, and contractors managing or felling infected ash trees, as the risks are not yet well Tiny fungal spores land on the leaves of an ash tree or at the base of the trunk. ash dieback. It is also informed by safety guidance and advice published by the forestry sector through Over longer distances the disease is likely to have spread through the movement of diseased ash plants, either privately or through the mass movement for planting around new developments. a road closure. for any operators working on or adjacent to that tree. Over longer distances the risk of disease spread is most likely to be through the movement of diseased ash plants. permission has been granted or a Notice has been served requiring you to take presence of the TPO, or a conservation area. (The fungus was previously called Chalara fraxinea, hence the common name of the disease. risk locations, to maximise the reduction in risk to the general public from structural These fungi can also affect trees that are already suffering from Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. How does ash dieback spread? pruning or safe felling, that ash dieback will create. a felling licence exists, e.g. biological resource, and so management in these woodlands will have greater limitations ground in potentially weakened ash trees, tree works could include: Tree pruning or felling works should be undertaken by suitably qualified and experienced The latest distribution maps for cases of the disease in the wider environment can be found on the Forestry Commission website. How is ash dieback spread? A licence does not control, for example, timber extraction, stacking or storage, timber There are now warning signs that the humble garden hedge may spread Chalara fraxinea - ash dieback. Tree Safety Group – Common Sense Risk Management of Trees, Appendix 1 - Example: A tree inspection Chalara dieback of ash is a disease of ash trees caused by the fungus Chalara fraxinea. Until a ban was applied on all movement of ash trees and seeds in October 2012, high volumes of ash (F. excelsior) were imported every year either for forestry or non-forestry purposes; therefore the potential for entry of the pathogen to the UK was very high. Images should certification in the UK. If you find a suspected case of ash dieback in an area where it has not previously been reported (see the distribution map on the Forestry Commission website) you should report your suspicions to the relevant plant health authority by submitting a report via TreeAlert. Crown reduction works necessary to remove any deadwood would, in the opinion of a ash trees showing obvious ash dieback symptoms or advanced signs of ash dieback. Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. where there are habitat, they can be very important for supporting biodiverse ecosystems. the total height of the tree) of a highway, service qualified professional, significantly harm the vitality (or visual amenity) of the tree. The fungus was described as a new fungal species in 2006 as the cause of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) mortality in European countries during the previous ten years. highly heritable. be planning mitigation for the expected loss of a large proportion of ash trees. We’ll send you a link to a feedback form. Special Areas of Conservation (SACs), Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and RAMSAR sites In this instance an application would be referred to the Secretary of Failure to comply with or obtain the necessary permissions could be an offense under the The apothecia are produced from June to October on ash leaf petioles and rachises (stalks) from the previous year in the leaf litter. the England Coastal Path, tree felling operations may impact on the public’s right to A specialist team is looking at ways to safeguard the future of the species. The sexual, reproductive stage, (teleomorph) grows during summer on ash petioles in the previous year's fallen leaves. First confirmed in Britain in 2012, ash dieback, previously known as ‘Chalara’, is a disease tree felling can have an increased sensitivity or disturbance factor. These spores land on leaves and then penetrate into the leaf and beyond. should be avoided as the health of individual trees can vary from year to year and Jack Shamash reports. Don’t include personal or financial information like your National Insurance number or credit card details. – Origin? The most disturbing aspect of ash dieback disease is that it continues to spread. their agents and authorities have a duty to consider biodiversity; dead branches and must be maintained as safe for public use. required on them and when. These wind-borne spores are produced from small white mushroom-like structures, pictured right, which grow on last year’s fallen ash leaf stalks in the leaf litter. Use the presence of trees in relation to other features, such as highways, However, it's threatened by the ash dieback fungus, or Hymenoscyphus fraxineus; a highly infectious, devastating disease. From here you can begin to focus on assessing the highest risk The natural host range of the fungus includes F. excelsior, F. angustifolia, F. ornus, F. nigra, F. pennsylvanica, F. americana and F. mandschurica. The common ash Fraxinus excelsior young and old. Ash dieback is a serious fungal disease of ash trees, caused by a fungus now called Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Ash dieback has since spread ferociously throughout Europe due to airborne spores and trade in ash saplings which have no visual symptoms of the disease. Lower risk trees can be managed as part of a normal longer term approach to tree the disease has been established for over 25 years, and from the UK where, more The disease is now endemic. The spores land on leaves or other parts of the trees. constant review; this guidance will change periodically. The Forestry Commission will consult on felling proposals with those bodies. Tree health scientists are studying the Ash dieback (Hymenoscyphus fraxineus) is the most devastating tree disease since dutch elm disease killed 60 million elm trees in the UK during two epidemics in the 1920s and 1970s. You may initially feel constrained by what is initially permitted. Both the Planning Act 1990. non-woodland ash tree, the Forestry Act exception for a dangerous tree should only be Showing evidence of significant tree health risk factors, such as dead limbs, Hymenoscyphus fraxineus is an Ascomycete fungus that causes ash dieback, a chronic fungal disease of ash trees in Europe characterised by leaf loss and crown dieback in infected trees. should also be used by other relevant authorities in England who also have responsibility ash management on SSSI woodlands affected by ash dieback. New hope for tackling ash dieback as researchers claim charcoal treatment makes trees more resilient. It is important that you understand the feature interests of these designations – they are failure of diseased ash trees. Note: The citations for these protection areas were not written with major issues such as How does ash dieback spread? Threat. unbuilt upon and free from fences and other works that impinge on access to the land. diseased and dying trees, requires a felling licence, unless a specific exception to the Where a felling licence would normally be required to fell trees and the proposals for tree Some ash trees appear to be able to tolerate infection. network, built infrastructure, or a space with frequent public use and, The greater part of the crown of the tree is dead; and. failure incident occur which affects someone else. If composting ash leaves in an area where ash dieback is known to be present, the Forestry Commission recommends covering them with with a 10cm (4-inch) layer of soil or a 15-30cm (6-12 inches) layer of other plant material, and leaving the heap undisturbed for a year (other than covering it with more material). Movement of logs or unsawn wood from infected trees might also be a pathway for the disease, although this is considered to be a low risk. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: psi@nationalarchives.gov.uk. At the same time, there is a limited resource of suitably trained and skilled contractors authorities for temporary closure orders e.g. Once a felling licence is issued, When first identifying the location of individual ash trees on land which you are permit the cutting down (felling) of growing trees or an area of woodland. exception in the Forestry Act 1967 with respect to ash trees affected by ash dieback. It is within falling distance (i.e. important tree in the landscape by, for example, undertaking compensatory tree planting Failure to comply with felling conditions is an offence under the Act. This is important in helping to This guidance aligns with the government approach to ash dieback, set out in the Tree The disease affecting ash trees, first detected in Britain in East Anglia in 2012, is now found from Cornwall to Northumberland. locations first. an agent or contractor, must ensure that a felling licence has However, if you produce a UK Forestry This Operations Note provides advice is for land managers, including householders and You can change your cookie settings at any time. How we are tackling ash dieback. The main symptoms of ash dieback are: Dead branches, particularly in the high canopy. As our third most common tree, they are a vital part of the ecosystems in our woodlands and hedgerows as well as a durable wood found in all our homes. fraxini are also associated with dieback on ash. Landscape impact resulting from loss of significant numbers of trees can be Current knowledge does not provide clarity on the impact of ash dieback on the life expectancy of individual ash trees, although up to 5% of ash trees will show genetic tolerance to the disease and many trees growing in open sites may not succumb to the disease and are likely to persist indefinitely. The life-cycle is completed as spores are produced from tiny, mushroomlike fruiting bodies that form on the fallen leaves of ash trees that were infected the previous year. The spread of ash dieback – aerial footage. genetic factors which enable this so that tolerant ash trees can also be bred for the future. of ash trees caused by a fungus (Hymenoscyphus fraxineus). As the devastating scale of ash dieback’s destructive payload in the United Kingdom became apparent, it was inevitable that sooner or later the ‘golden-lining’ opportunists would put their heads up over the parapet to ask if the phenomenon does not actually represent a bonanza for today’s wood-burning … Note: Ash dieback does not affect mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia). example, as resting, breeding or foraging sites for important species, then mitigation – Areas affected so far? To help us improve GOV.UK, we’d like to know more about your visit today. which may also apply to proposals to fell ash trees, and sometimes additional consents, does not in itself provide the authority to fell trees without a felling licence. managing trees and woodland, and planning felling operations. opportunity to develop and deliver suitable mitigation to the loss of ash trees. Therefore, some management, and promotion of natural regeneration, When it is producing asexual spores the fungus is known as Chalara fraxinea, and the disease is therefore sometimes called Chalara dieback or just Chalara. Ongoing monitoring of ash trees should focus on those trees in high or higher risk declining trees can provide valuable habitat for other flora and fauna, some of which is If you do not have a felling licence in place, and need one, an the tree using a rule, tape measure or, in distance shots, a person or a vehicle. The principle tree and land protections are detailed below, but the list is not exhaustive. An approve it, then we can issue a felling licence for any proposed felling for 10 years. Where landscapes have been designated as having a special character e.g. In the case of work on SSSI woodland, the Forestry Commission will help to secure that Ash dieback diease is caused by the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, previously called Chalara fraxinea.. Current figures estimate that up to 95% of the ash trees in the UK will be lost to Ash dieback within the next 15 years, resulting in a major loss to our woodland and the biodiversity of these areas. Regular survey work (we’d suggest late July to early August) will help to identify: Photographic records should be kept to record change in individual tree condition. Chalara dieback of ash, also known as Chalara or ash dieback, is a disease of ash trees caused by a fungus called Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. woodland potentially being a habitat focus. In category: Pests and diseases Hymenoscyphus fraxineus is responsible for causing severe dieback on European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and narrow-leaved ash (F. angustifolia) across Europe. advice from Natural England and the Forestry Commission, UK Forest Industry Safety Accord (UKFISA), Euroforest - Safety Guidance for s.194), strengthened by the Commons Act 2006. Scientists have developed techniques to identify individual trees that are less susceptible to ash dieback disease. The disease is also established in many other European countries, where it has had devastating effects. Therefore, the use of crown size of a tree or the volume of timber, trees in particular locations (such as churchyards, exception available. alternative location, but to do so the applicant must demonstrate the benefits of an First confirmed in Britain in 2012, ash dieback, previously known as ‘Chalara’, is a disease of ash trees caused by a fungus (Hymenoscyphus fraxineus). However, H. fraxineus was not identified as the cause of the disease until the mid-2000s. Tree Safety Group – Common Sense Risk Management of Trees booklet - on identifying trees will subsequently die from or be significantly affected by the disease in the coming the opportunity to put a TPO on the tree(s) affected by the felling proposal, should they works that prevent or impede access on common land since 1925 (Law of Property Act If you manage a woodland you can find more guidance from the Forestry Commission here. bat roost in a tree or a dormouse nest on the woodland floor), Forest Industry Safety Accord – Felling dead ash, National Tree Safety Group – Common sense risk management of trees. There is no chemical control available to gardeners for this disease. First found in the UK February 2012, local spread is by wind and by movement of diseased plants over longer distances. network infrastructure, buildings, or in areas or routes frequently used by the public. woodland cover would be deemed to impede or reduce public access. networks or spaces frequented by the public and create (and document) your There is no known cure or practical way to prevent the disease from spreading. Results from the 2016 Chalara Ash Dieback Survey indicate further spread of the disease to native ash in the wider countryside. appears to more rapidly lose timber strength and integrity and is prone to structural obtaining road closure and service shut-down orders and implementing them. This may mean liaising with other Notwithstanding assessing any health and safety risks associated with working off the Therefore, management of diseased ash trees should prioritise those trees in the highest integrity and inherent strength of an ash tree may be severely affected by the disease and permissions and licences are required from other bodies. The disease attacks ash trees quickly and there currently is no prevention or treatment available. Habitat mitigation, to offset any impact or loss as a result of felling trees, could include managing nearby trees or woodland to improve its condition and create associated species, such as bats, which may be affected when management on Dr Stephen Woodward from Aberdeen University stated that privet (Ligustrum ovalifolium) could be a carrier of Chalara fraxinea, the deadly disease killing our native ash trees. relevant legislation. The disease is spread through spores released from fungal bodies on fallen leaves, so collecting and burning those may help reduce repeat infections. Felling licence exceptions. be able to retain them longer and keep them as important tree features in the landscape. Trouble signing in? Since then, the disease has spread to all parts of the UK. population or habitat. Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), Scheduled Whilst this is disappointing it is not unexpected given the experience of the spread of the disease in Continental Europe and Great Britain.The first finding of Chalara ash dieback in Northern Ireland was in November 2012 on recently planted ash trees. Documentary evidence that some other permission or exclusion from the need for Tree owners, To help deliver high risk priorities in ash tree management, ash trees management in Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) is one of Britain’s 32 native species of trees. required to respond to an identified danger. approved felling licence will be the normal means for permitting tree felling, where Ash dieback, also known as Chalara dieback of ash, is a fungal disease that affects all species of ash trees (Fraxinus). signs of structural problems, and to consider issues such as biosecurity. However, there is a great desire to maintain a tree-lined or wooded character to many of may need a wildlife licence in certain circumstances. Also, alongside a felling licence, you may still need to obtain other permission or consent, The whole of the UK. checklists. gardens and public open spaces), specific tree types (fruit trees) or land uses (orchards), Images of ash dieback on ornamental species can be found here. The disease inhibits the uptake of water, weakening the tree and leaving it susceptible to secondary infections. Local authorities have an interest in trees and woodland which they have protected under those ash trees with high or higher risk factors and will be able to evidence what work is Because the disease is now so widespread the movement ban on ash within the UK and from EU countries has now been lifted. pests and diseases can cause ash trees to become stressed and to decline. approved woodland management plan. There is no As an ash tree declines, and where affected by secondary pathogens, it The following sections provides some basic steps that land managers should apply to help protected site to be allowed to take place. Extensive user guidance is provided to help you set up your account and property and to These include the Other problems such as drought stress, water logging, root damage, or other In assessing what risks may exist, useful and detailed advice can be found in the National conditional; this means there is an expectation that restocking, by either regeneration or Visible ash dieback symptoms do vary, but include leaf wilt, leaf loss and crown dieback, Such works include fencing, creating ditches, forestry works, new solid Hymenoscyphus fraxineus has been isolated from the roots of symptomatic trees, as well as from leaves, shoots and branch/stem lesions. It has spread rapidly in continental Europe. It is important to note that poor condition of an ash tree canopy might not be a result of When it is producing asexual spores the fungus is known as Chalara fraxinea, and the disease is therefore sometimes called Chalara dieback or just Chalara. How is ash dieback spread? woodland) are growing on your property or on land which you are responsible for. The fungus has two stages to its lifecycle - a sexual stage, which helps the fungus spread, and an asexual stage, which is what grows on the tree and causes damage. Further guidance on species selection options for replacing ash dieback affected trees is 7 What is being done to help ash dieback? practitioners. mapping system for future reference and for operational planning purposes. There has been a legal requirement to obtain Secretary of State Consent to carry out Note: Whether or not you need a felling licence, you have to notify the planning authority land subject to rights of common on the first of January 1926, s.38 of the 2006 Act Ash dieback is a disease that affects ash (Fraxinus) trees, caused by a fungus called Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. It will Coasts, tree felling can have an increased sensitivity in the landscape. ash dieback (and by secondary pests or pathogens). – Prognosis? Managers note, See section 4.4 - Dangerous tree exception – Forestry Act Show the scale or size of should look to minimise the loss of ash trees as a habitat used by other species and as an approved felling licence for trees on their land so that they can legally fell if they need to. action. What to do if you suspect a case Mature ash tree infected with Chalara. About Ash and Ash Dieback. alternative position for the trees or woodland in the landscape. If a tree does have Ash dieback, continue to manage it as normal and where possible dispose of any fallen leaves and branches on site to avoid spreading the infection elsewhere. If you follow good practice you should be able to carry out most activities without the registered as common under the 1965 Commons Registration Act, regulated by a Provisional Order Confirmation Act under the 1876 Commons Act, subject to a scheme of management under the Metropolitan Commons Act 1866 or Ash dieback has spread ferociously throughout Europe due to airborne spores and trade in ash saplings. Fixed point photography, at both a close-up and a landscape scale. We believe that through the assessment and survey process you will be able to identify See ‘Official action’ below. Gardeners and managers of parks and other sites with ash trees can help stop the local spread of ash dieback by collecting the fallen ash leaves and burning, burying or deep composting them. Password. through use of a felling licence, not the exception for dangerous trees. evidence of your awareness of the risks and your assessment of them, should a tree Managers note on felling ash dieback affected trees. mitigation, if you have important or protected species populations to consider, as you may activity will take place, and how the site will be protected from permanent damage. How did Ash Dieback spread? need for a wildlife licence – but to do so you may just have to modify or reschedule some Ash dieback has since spread ferociously throughout Europe due to airborne spores and trade in ash saplings which have no visual symptoms of the disease. requirement to consult the Forestry Commission before carrying out tree works, and there In particular, their focus must be on The Forestry Commission will consult on felling proposals with the Local Access Forum. Ash dieback may have arrived in Britain after spores were blown on the wind from continental Europe, or via infected trees imported by the horticultural trade, … felling carried out without either a felling licence, or an exception, is an offence. for controlling the management or felling of individual ash trees. lower risk locations should be delivered as part of longer term tree management. allowing genetic diversity, could be important because tolerance to ash dieback appears This video footage was taken in 2019 from a helicopter that flew over the woodland between Butts Brow in Willingdon and Meads. on roadsides, in hedgerows, in fields, along public rights of way, and not just those in At 1 December 2016 a total of 176 pr… Some designated sites e.g. The ascospores are produced in asci and are transmitted by wind; this might explain the rapid spread of the fungus. Where an exception for the need for a felling licence has effect, for example, a small tree, These findings are unlikely to have a big impact on the environment as these plants are not native or widespread in the UK. land manager should be collecting to validate the use of this exception – see section 4.2 - The first dying ash trees were reported in Poland in the 1990s and ash dieback has since spread all across Europe. licence has not been issued, and will take enforcement action where there is no obvious This advice has been developed through the expert knowledge of UK researchers and regeneration), as required under a felling licence, will require consent as the subsequent Young trees can be killed in one season and older trees tend to succumb after several seasons of infection. See 'The Science' below for an explanation of the name change.) by engaging others e.g. The UKFS also plays an important role in defining requirements for independent This work is likely to need to be spread over several years, highlighting the need for a honey fungus, would also fall within the scope of the The disease is changing the profile of the landscape across the UK and will undoubtedly change how we view a span of the downland in Eastbourne. Ash dieback is a serious disease of ash trees, caused by a fungus now called Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Joint of an approved felling licence. The density of wider environment infections is still greatest in the east but there have now also been cases recorded in many other areas. Ash dieback: the ruined Polish forest where deadly fungus began. You must carry out planned operations carefully, making the necessary checks, and you Ash dieback has spread the length and breadth of England. In some circumstances, we may agree to replant an equivalent number of trees in an Movement of diseased ash trees is likely to be the cause of spread over longer distances. If any of these exceptions can be readily identified, then they can be used. Ensuring plenty of air movement through the tree and the collection of fallen leaves will make it harder for the fungus to spread further. surfaced roads, paths and car parks. Monuments (SM), National Nature Reserves (NNR) or World Heritage Sites (WHS), are growing in a garden, churchyard, orchard or public open space. Growing trees are known to be weakened to the of images over time to show decline in a trees condition. and woodland. This Operations Note is supplementary to and does not replace any existing published The Forestry Commission gives the following interpretation of the ‘dangerous tree’ trees with potential to affect ‘high risk’ locations, should be an immediate concern. 1967, section 8 - Other legislation and tree protection, National Ash dieback has been making its way across Europe for decades and is believed to have arrived in Northern Ireland (NI) in 2012. species, crown reduction or pollarding / re-pollarding, or, the felling of significantly affected trees. Currently there is no known efficient prevention or curative treatment. recently, the disease has progressed rapidly in some locations. The timescale to receive an approved felling licence may take longer than is The disease can spread … Felling proposals should be in the spirit of maintaining the TPO; a felling licence woodland settings. The disease has spread west across the country and is now affecting almost all parts of Wales. The disease has spread west across the country and is now affecting almost all parts of Wales. of tolerant trees may lead to more tolerant strains. legislation – The National Trust Act 1971, deliberately capture, injure, kill or cause significant disturbance to a protected Ash dieback, Chalara, Chalara Ash dieback. Ash dieback symptoms. A range of exceptions to the need for a felling licence are described in the Act. The fungus has several pathways of spread over long distances; It can be spread through the movement of diseased ash plants and logs or unsawn wood from infected trees. ash trees is undertaken. They land on leaves, stick to and then penetrate into the leaf and more. a number of ash trees, the location of specific trees with features of importance e.g. An infected Ash tree will release spores into the air, which can be carried miles away. contribute to tree decline and death. tree surgeons – see section 9 - Sources of further advice. tree that is subject to a TPO. likely to need additional consent from the relevant authority in order for work on the (replanting or regeneration) of the locations where the trees have been felled. Managing ash in woodlands in light of ash dieback: operations note 46, part of the ash Once an application is received, the Forestry Commission will consult with the It is a stark depiction of the scale of the problem – the grey areas of the woodland canopy are dead and dying ash trees. The latter disease has only been confirmed on Fraxinus excelsior. Armillaria fungi (honey are retained and available to be reused for future applications for tree felling. our landscapes, and so there are some tree health related grant funding initiatives to help growing seasons. land manager to obtain a long term approved felling licence, but also, giving them an risk and making balanced decisions on what the options for required action are. Regulations 2017, Managing ash in woodlands in light of ash dieback: Operations Note 46, Coronavirus (COVID-19): guidance and support, Transparency and freedom of information releases. Ash dieback is a disease affecting ash trees caused by the fungus Chalara fraxinea. Licences for felling individual trees, groups of trees or wooded areas will usually be Notwithstanding deciding whether a Felling Licence is required or not to fell an individual need for a licence, where certain criteria are met, is applicable, for example, trees ash trees and corroborating those locations with site visits when compiling an application planning authority on the proposals and seek agreement on issuing the felling railways. is important to understand the legal position and requirements before attempting to carry Ash dieback has spread the length and breadth of England. ash dieback in mind. been issued or that one of the exceptions applies before any felling is carried out. All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated, Appendix 1 - Example: tree inspection checklists, Managing ash trees affected by ash dieback: operations note 46a, nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3, Managing ash in woodlands in light of ash dieback: operations note 46, Managing woodland SSSIs with ash dieback (Hymenoscyphus fraxineus). Hymenoscyphus fraxineus causes a lethal disease of ash and represents a substantial threat both to the UK’s forests and to amenity trees growing in parks and gardens. and that for those bodies, conserving biodiversity also includes restoring or enhancing a A felling licence will normally last for 5 years. Showing the highest levels of disease tolerance. See the Euroforest - Safety Guidance for This is to ensure compliance undertaking works that are otherwise excepted from the need for a felling licence. practitioners, who have responsibility for the management of individual and small groups dieback will have a more immediate, direct and potentially significant impact on it needs licencing. Locations with permissive access, such as community woodlands should be Felling Licences will, in most cases, have conditions applied them to require restocking Understanding what risks a land owner might face from ash dieback, particularly from ash are appropriate to the sensitivity of the local landscape and which will help replace the RHS members can get exclusive individual advice from the RHS Gardening Advice team. felling work on the TPO. Local spread of up to tens of miles can be caused by the wind blowing spores of the fungus. arboricultural course to help you to be able to identify disease and dieback symptoms and From the leaves, the fungus makes its way down the petioles, rachises and stems. These consents will dictate how and when the Since then the fungus has spread eastward killing large numbers of ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior).The fungus was first confirmed in the UK in 2012, although it is now known to have been present in the UK for a lot longer. You should use this EPS Checklist as part of your tree assessment and monitoring prior to The first finding of Chalara ash dieback in Northern Ireland was in November 2012 on recently planted ash trees. safeguarding these protected areas with you, while enabling you to address ash dieback. More generally though, where a felling exception may be used, there is no legal There is no cure and once trees are infected with ash dieback it is usually fatal. Email address. should be planned to secure these features in the long term. The Forestry Commission is responsible for implementing the UKFS in England. registered practitioners and consultants – see section 9 - Sources of further advice. These species; mock privet (Phillyrea latifolia), narrow-leaved mock privet (Phillyrea angustifolia) and white fringe tree (Chionanthus virginicus) are in the same family as ash (Oleaceae). mitigated by advance planting of new trees and woodland using locally appropriate These spores are released into the air and blown by the wind into contact with the leaves of healthy ash trees, thereby causing infection. Where a felling licence would normally be required to fell growing trees, the Forestry identify and maintain a diverse genetic ash tree resource, Showing evidence of use by or as a host for important or, the current condition of the ash tree population, the rate of condition change, including the cumulative rate of change locally across managed by excluding the public until safety works are completed. It The UKFS defines the management requirements, and provides guidelines and the basis with appropriate machinery and equipment to undertake the likely safety work, including It produces tiny white fruiting bodies between July and October which release spores into the atmosphere. Where The fungus then grows inside the tree, eventually blocking its water transport systems, causing it to eventually die. Such works applies to land: Both Acts require that consent is obtained for any restricted works that will prevent or resources, to minimise the impact of tree felling activities on land managers and on You can seek advice from your local Forestry Health Resilience Strategy (May 2018), and it should be read in conjunction with Ash dieback can spread up to tens of miles by wind-blown spores or by trees growing too close to infected ash trees. The UK Forestry Standard (UKFS) sets out the UK government’s approach to sustainable You can apply online for a Felling Licence. Advice can be sought from suitably qualified and experienced tree consultants. and in some instances visible bark lesions in branch or stem tissues which directly The fungus then grows inside the tree, eventually blocking its water transport systems, causing it to eventually die. This video footage was taken in 2019 from a helicopter that flew over the woodland between Butts Brow in Willingdon and Meads. licence and on applying any replanting conditions. what risks you think are likely if the tree declines, e.g. dieback toolkit. The spread of ash dieback – aerial footage. Sightings in Northern Ireland should be reported via TreeCheck. point where they succumb to secondary pests or pathogens, e.g. Commission in the use of felling licences and felling exceptions (Forestry Act 1967), but Mon – Fri | 9am – 5pm, Join the RHS today and support our charity. changes resulting from ash dieback are not yet fully understood or realised. The ash dieback fungus could spread more quickly and affect more trees than previously expected, according to research at the University of Exeter. Aerial photography is freely available online to assist with this work. The fungus can also produce asexual spores, but these are not believed to be infectious and can only spread over short distances by water splash. England are now symptomatic of ash dieback, and it is expected that the majority of ash requirement to replant. It also alludes to the evidence a These spores land on leaves and then penetrate into the leaf and beyond. RHS Garden Hyde Hall Spring and Orchid Show, Free entry to RHS members at selected may be advisable. the Commons Act 1899, works on commons owned by the National Trust are covered by separate Any Ash dieback is a serious disease of ash trees caused by the fungal pathogen Chalara fraxinea and Teagasc said it was first noted in October 2012 in Ireland, on plants imported from continental Europe. application will normally take up to 11 weeks to process, usually much less. There is currently a prohibition on importation and inland movements of ash seeds, plants or other planting material. The difficulty in assessing the inherent timber strength of an ash tree affected by forest and woodland management across the UK. Replanting with ash trees is not permitted due to the current embargo on ash plant Where public access to the wider landscape is guaranteed on Open Access land and along In 2018 ash dieback has been found infecting three new ornamental tree and shrub species in the UK. sustainable forest management, climate change, biodiversity and the protection of water As cases of ash dieback hit our shores, is there still time to protect the UK's trees against the infection spreading from mainland Europe? Natural England and the Forestry Commission have jointly prepared specific guidance for The advice is provided in the knowledge that land managers have an overarching duty to However, both Forest Research and the country forestry authorities are keen to receive reports of ash dieback in parts of the country where it has not already been recorded. Ash dieback is a disease that affects ash trees, caused by a fungus called Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. The immediate effect of the spread of ash dieback is that a lot of these woodlands are being felled to protect the timber stock which means that there is and will be a lot of British ash firewood for sale in the short to medium-term. Ash dieback's deadly grip is being felt all across the United Kingdom's woodlands. and for dangerous trees (See section 4.4 - Dangerous tree exception – Forestry Act proposed. plan for and make reasonable decisions on when confronting the advance of ash dieback: As a land manager, as a first step, make yourself aware of where ash trees (outside of have regard, when exercising their functions, to the purpose of conserving biodiversity, This should include obtaining an We use this information to make the website work as well as possible and improve government services. spaces), the risk of failure of part of, or the entire ash tree as a result of ash Section 9(4)(a) of the Forestry Act 1967 states that: A felling licence shall not be required for any felling which is for the prevention The fungus overwinters in leaf debris on the ground, particularly on ash leaf stalks. identify what sort of management responses you may need to consider. the tree is via a felling licence. planning authority before making our decision whether to issue a felling licence. This disease has spread quickly and is now affecting woodlands across the UK, leading to the death of tens of thousands of trees. movements. The disease affects trees of all ages. church yards, gardens and parks that are likely to be or become infected by ash dieback. We advise a precautionary State and the application dealt with under the Town & Country Planning Act. by associated secondary pests or pathogens; these may create high risk felling conditions Ash dieback fungus is believed to have originated in … Forestry Commission management. Whereas the earlier Act applied only to However, the theory that spores wind-blown from the continent are a common source of entry is now widely accepted, as cases recorded in the wider environment were initially located in the eastern parts of the country. For applicants, this means having to identify the location of individual and small groups of However, many cases have now been confirmed in the wider environment in the UK and the disease is widely distributed. Ash dieback is a disease that causes leaf loss and dying branches, and can lead to the death of a tree. – What trees does it affect? Restocking (including the planned use of natural Locations with statutory access rights, such as roads and public rights of way Ash trees were first recorded dying in large numbers from what has now been described as ash dieback in Poland in 1992, and it spread rapidly to other European countries. approval, and will carry out checks to ensure the Standard is being complied with. felling would be the normal management activity, it is expected that this will be delivered Collaborate effectively with neighbours and local authorities in co-ordinating contractor Record the presence and locations of ash and other trees on a plan, map or GIS Ash dieback is caused by a non-native fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, which arrived into eastern Europe in the 1990’s on imported trees. It is informed by evidence and experience from continental Europe, where comply with the law, and should be acting now in their preparation to deal with the likely We expect public bodies to replace ash trees felled as a result of ash dieback when A felling licence application should consider all the trees on your property, including those zones of risk. This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/managing-ash-trees-affected-by-ash-dieback-operations-note-46a/managing-ash-trees-affected-by-ash-dieback-operations-note-46a. exceptions generally apply to particular kinds of work on trees (topping or lopping), the Only trained and experienced tree surgeons or forestry workers should undertake work on Ash dieback, also known as Chalara dieback of ash, is a fungal disease that affects all species of ash trees (Fraxinus). The fungus has several pathways of spread over long distances; It can be spread  through the movement of diseased ash plants and logs or unsawn wood from infected trees. tree, on a tree by tree basis; there is less risk of challenge by authorities. for regulation and monitoring of trees and woodland. The fungus has two stages to its lifecycle - a sexual stage, which helps the fungus spread, and an asexual stage, which is what grows on the tree and causes damage. After due consideration, the Forestry Commission may grant a felling licence to legally reduction or lopping instead of felling, natural regeneration of felled trees and propagation The consent process is administered by the Planning Inspectorate on behalf of the An infected Ash tree will release spores into the air, which can be carried miles away. You will need to create an account on the system, and create a map showing your trees The pest ash bud moth (Prays fraxinella) affects Fraxinus excelsior causing hollowing out of buds and removal of bark at the base of shoots, sometimes leading to shoot killing. for example, for work affecting protected species, or to work on protected sites. impede access. may be prepared to accept. It was detected in the UK for the first time in 2012 and is now very widespread. Ash (Fraxinus excelsior and other species of Fraxinus) can be recognised by the following features; Useful images of both ash and ash dieback disease can be found on the Forestry Commission website. access (and enjoyment of) those areas. felling are within a Conservation Area, the Forestry Commission will consult with the These spores can blow many miles away. Movement of logs or unsawn wood from infected trees might also be a path… Forestry Commission Tree Alert, Join fungus). The disease has spread west across the country and is now affecting almost all parts of Wales. Where specific sites are protected for e.g. Cankers caused by the fungus Neonectria ditissima and the bacterium Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. However, this exception should only The Royal Horticultural Society is the UK’s leading gardening charity. and soil resources are robustly applied. Commission woodland officer on what grants may be available. into an isolated field. Plan for the economic costs and administrative time associated with, for example, The fungus overwinters in leaf debris on the ground, particularly on ash leaf stalks. by Jack Shamash. Join the RHS today and support our charitable work, Keep track of your plants with reminders & care tips – all to help you grow successfully, For the latest on RHS Shows in 2020 and 2021, read more, RHS members get free access to RHS Gardens, Free entry to RHS members at selected times », Reduced prices on RHS Garden courses and workshops, Our Garden Centres and online shops are packed with unique and thoughtful gifts and decorations to make your Christmas sparkle, General enquiries Don’t worry we won’t send you spam or share your email address with anyone. Current advice recommends that land managers should already be identifying their ash times, RHS Registered Charity no. ash trees growing within ‘high risk’ locations, like those adjacent to highways, service There is historic legal protection that provides for common land to remain unenclosed, The Forestry Act 1967 (Section 9(1)) states that the felling of growing trees, including How does it spread? map. The least susceptible species are F. americana and F. mandschurica. the site is a garden, public open space or churchyard, or that an alternative See our webpages here; Will Ash trees go extinct in the UK? Visitors to woods, forests, parks and public gardens can help to minimise the spread of chalara ash dieback and other plant diseases. The Forestry Commission expects that most ash tree felling in response to ash dieback, In the UK, the disease was first confirmed in trees growing in nurseries or on recently planted ash trees. assess forestry proposals, including tree felling, against the Standard before giving its cannot be issued if the local authority sustains an objection to the felling make your application. That in high risk locations (beside highways, network infrastructure and public proportion of them growing in high risk locations in terms of regular public use. of your management proposals or practices. that you intend to work on or fell trees in a Conservation Area at least 6 weeks before any where you need to focus most attention, potentially at the individual tree level, and to emerging issues more quickly, or, to leave trees standing if they remain unaffected. Ensuring plenty of air movement through the tree and the collection of fallen leaves will make it harder for the fungus to spread further. Movement of infected logs, leaf litter and pieces of wood may also spread the disease. The Natural Environment and Rural Communities (NERC) Act 2006 directs public bodies to ‘dangerous tree’ exception for felling infected ash trees. The infectious spores (sexual) of the fungus are produced by fruiting bodies (apothecia) and can be wind-blown over long distances (20-30 km). National Parks checklists, Managing ash in woodlands in light of ash dieback: A recent estimate suggested that ash dieback would cost the UK economy £15bn. locations to ensure that any change in their condition is noted as early as possible. See the Woodland Trust’s guide to identifying ash trees. Having a felling licence in place will help you to: Important: Everyone involved in the felling of trees, whether doing the work directly or European protected species (EPS) listed in the Conservation of Habitats and Species The fungus blocks water transport in the tree, leading to lesions in the bark, leaf loss and the dieback of the crown. Any assessment should look to identify ash trees that are: Make and keep records of what trees you have, what you see when you assess them, and

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